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Research Project Report

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AstudyontheSystematicManagementof AirPollutantsfromships in Korea
Report No. 2016-09 Research Manager Ho Choon, Lee
File

Summary


1) The management status of air pollutants from ships in IMO and major countries
In accordance with MARPOL73/78, IMO manages all noxious substances in the form of liquid, solid and gas generated from ships. Recently, IMO is concentrating its effort to prevent air pollutants from ships through Annex VI of MARPOL, which took effect in May 2005. In addition, Emission Control Areas (ECAs) in which stricter controls are established to minimize airborne emissions in specific sea areas are increasingly spreading across the world.
The Unites States preemptively prevents air quality from deteriorating by establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and designating ECAs. The European Union came up with Environmental Action Program (EAP), implementing environmental policy through legislation process with member countries. China designated three regions including Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and Bohai Bay as ECA, speeding up the management of air pollutants emitted from ships. Japan was the first Northeast Asian country to review the introduction of ECA. However, the country has not yet introduced the system.
Looking at the management status of air pollutants from ships, IMO and major countries are increasingly strengthening the scope and intensity of regulation. Also, such regulation is connected with industries, increasing its impact to individual countries.
2) Korea’s current status of managing air pollutants from ships
Looking at the management status of air emissions from ships in Korea, air pollutants emitted from ships is not properly managed. While the Ministry of Environment (MOE) is focusing on pollution sources on land, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF) is more concentrating on the water quality management at seas.
This fact can be reconfirmed by the data on regional emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter which are highly produced from ships. In particular, compared with other port areas, Busan and Incheon, where large ports are located in hinterlands, show a high proportion of air pollutants emissions from non-road mobile sources in emissions of SOx, NOx, and PM10.
The air pollutants from ships are not managed in a systematic and efficient manner in Korea. As a result, major port cities show a high percentage of air pollutants emissions from non-road mobile sources in emissions of SOx, NOx, and PM10 which are produced highly by ships. This has led to the problems that cause a serious impact on the public health.
3) Estimation of economic value of health effect resulting from emission reduction
The study performs survey with conjoint analysis methodology in order to estimate the economic value of health effect resulting from the reduction of air pollutants from ships.
The estimation result covering all areas including Busan and Incheon shows marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) on health damage per each attributes. According to the result, premature death ranks the largest amount of 13,329.7 KRW / one thousand persons, followed by lung cancer of 8,637.9 KRW / one thousand persons and asthma of 213.6 KRW/ one thousand persons.
Furthermore, the study estimates the economic benefits of reducing the health damage by 5% and 10% respectively resulting from air pollution from ships (as of the end of 2006). The estimation result shows that the economic benefit of reducing the health damage caused by air pollution from ships by 5% from the current level would reach as much as 190.1 billion KRW (as of the end of 2016) for the next 5 years.
Such result of conjoint analysis is meaningful in that it makes a direct estimation of impact between air pollutants from ships and the damage to the public health. In addition, the study conducts the analysis based on major attribute variables which are influenced by air pollutants from ships, such as premature death, lung cancer, asthma and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the analysis can provide quantitative information on the economic values of various health benefits achieved by reducing air emissions from ships. In this regard, government related projects can directly use the study in their cost-benefit analysis.
4) Proposing legal and institutional as well as technological management plans
The study presents the current status of managing air pollutants from ships in Korea and overseas as well as problems. Based on this, it establishes improvement goals and directions with detailed improvement tasks. Consequently, legal and institutional measures and technological measures are proposed to strengthen the management system for air pollutants emitted from ships. The study explains on measures to amend relevant laws, to introduce ECA and to establish cooperation network in Northeast Asia as legal and institutional plans. Technological measures include establishing an inventory for air pollutants from ships, building a monitoring system in coastal areas and developing a tool for analyzing the impact of air pollutants.
5) The systematic management of air pollutants from ships in Korea
The systematic management of air pollutants from ships that this study suggests should be based on a clear legal foundation on the subjects under the management and management authority. Based on this, institutional measures such as establishing ECA system and building cooperation network in Northeast Asia should be combined with technological measures including building an inventory for air pollutants, establishing monitoring system and developing an impact analysis tool. In doing so, the systematic management ultimately strives to achieve the protection of atmospheric environment and the improvement of the national health.

Research Project Report 상세보기
AstudyontheSystematicManagementof AirPollutantsfromships in Korea
Report No. 2016-09 Research Manager Ho Choon, Lee
File

Summary


1) The management status of air pollutants from ships in IMO and major countries
In accordance with MARPOL73/78, IMO manages all noxious substances in the form of liquid, solid and gas generated from ships. Recently, IMO is concentrating its effort to prevent air pollutants from ships through Annex VI of MARPOL, which took effect in May 2005. In addition, Emission Control Areas (ECAs) in which stricter controls are established to minimize airborne emissions in specific sea areas are increasingly spreading across the world.
The Unites States preemptively prevents air quality from deteriorating by establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and designating ECAs. The European Union came up with Environmental Action Program (EAP), implementing environmental policy through legislation process with member countries. China designated three regions including Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and Bohai Bay as ECA, speeding up the management of air pollutants emitted from ships. Japan was the first Northeast Asian country to review the introduction of ECA. However, the country has not yet introduced the system.
Looking at the management status of air pollutants from ships, IMO and major countries are increasingly strengthening the scope and intensity of regulation. Also, such regulation is connected with industries, increasing its impact to individual countries.
2) Korea’s current status of managing air pollutants from ships
Looking at the management status of air emissions from ships in Korea, air pollutants emitted from ships is not properly managed. While the Ministry of Environment (MOE) is focusing on pollution sources on land, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF) is more concentrating on the water quality management at seas.
This fact can be reconfirmed by the data on regional emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter which are highly produced from ships. In particular, compared with other port areas, Busan and Incheon, where large ports are located in hinterlands, show a high proportion of air pollutants emissions from non-road mobile sources in emissions of SOx, NOx, and PM10.
The air pollutants from ships are not managed in a systematic and efficient manner in Korea. As a result, major port cities show a high percentage of air pollutants emissions from non-road mobile sources in emissions of SOx, NOx, and PM10 which are produced highly by ships. This has led to the problems that cause a serious impact on the public health.
3) Estimation of economic value of health effect resulting from emission reduction
The study performs survey with conjoint analysis methodology in order to estimate the economic value of health effect resulting from the reduction of air pollutants from ships.
The estimation result covering all areas including Busan and Incheon shows marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) on health damage per each attributes. According to the result, premature death ranks the largest amount of 13,329.7 KRW / one thousand persons, followed by lung cancer of 8,637.9 KRW / one thousand persons and asthma of 213.6 KRW/ one thousand persons.
Furthermore, the study estimates the economic benefits of reducing the health damage by 5% and 10% respectively resulting from air pollution from ships (as of the end of 2006). The estimation result shows that the economic benefit of reducing the health damage caused by air pollution from ships by 5% from the current level would reach as much as 190.1 billion KRW (as of the end of 2016) for the next 5 years.
Such result of conjoint analysis is meaningful in that it makes a direct estimation of impact between air pollutants from ships and the damage to the public health. In addition, the study conducts the analysis based on major attribute variables which are influenced by air pollutants from ships, such as premature death, lung cancer, asthma and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the analysis can provide quantitative information on the economic values of various health benefits achieved by reducing air emissions from ships. In this regard, government related projects can directly use the study in their cost-benefit analysis.
4) Proposing legal and institutional as well as technological management plans
The study presents the current status of managing air pollutants from ships in Korea and overseas as well as problems. Based on this, it establishes improvement goals and directions with detailed improvement tasks. Consequently, legal and institutional measures and technological measures are proposed to strengthen the management system for air pollutants emitted from ships. The study explains on measures to amend relevant laws, to introduce ECA and to establish cooperation network in Northeast Asia as legal and institutional plans. Technological measures include establishing an inventory for air pollutants from ships, building a monitoring system in coastal areas and developing a tool for analyzing the impact of air pollutants.
5) The systematic management of air pollutants from ships in Korea
The systematic management of air pollutants from ships that this study suggests should be based on a clear legal foundation on the subjects under the management and management authority. Based on this, institutional measures such as establishing ECA system and building cooperation network in Northeast Asia should be combined with technological measures including building an inventory for air pollutants, establishing monitoring system and developing an impact analysis tool. In doing so, the systematic management ultimately strives to achieve the protection of atmospheric environment and the improvement of the national health.

이전글, 다음글 읽기
이전글 A Study on the Policy for Enlargement Applicationof Eco-friendly Technology for Korean Ships
다음글 A Study on Policy Direction for Multicultural Families in Fishing Villages